Cost Difference :
|Much less as compared to the other European Countries
Pediatric Urology is a specialize branch of medicine that deals
with the disorders of children's genitourinary systems (kidneys, bladder,
ureters and genitalia). This kind of disorder is mostly found in the
children, both boys and girls, ranging from newborn to 15 years of age. The
most common problems which involves this disease is the disorder of
urination and testes.
Pediatric Urology comprises of many diseases from the very common to the
very rare such as:
This disorder means the presence of extra urinary
fluid in the kidney. It is only a physical phenomenon rather than a disease
that take place with many diseases. It can happen due to the obstruction of
the ureters or bladder outlet and also result from reflux.
Tumors of the kidney :
The symptoms of the kidney tumors includes
abdominal pain, abdominal mass, blood in the urine, vomiting and failure to
grow. Some of the most common types of Kidney tumors are Wilm's tumor,
Mesoblastic Nephroma, Neuroblastoma which is found commonly in the adrenal
gland, but can be exist anywhere along the sympathetic nervous system. The
treatment of the tumors require surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation.
Kidney stone :
Kidney stones in children is very rare as compare to
adults. These can be frequently caused by errors of metabolism present in
the body by birth, reflux and obstruction. Some types of Kidney stone are
Calcium oxalate, Uric acid, Cystine stones, Struvite stones. The first step
of treating kidney stone is to recognized the type and then identify the
root cause behind he stone formation.
Urinary tract infection :
This type of the infection is the first
sign of a abnormality of bladder present at the time of birth or kidney
malfunction. If there is no proper examination of the urine, these Urinary
Tract Infection may go unnoticed. Some of the important symptoms of the UTI
includes: Dysuria( burning sensation while urination), always have the
feeling of frequent and urgent urination, foul smelling of the urine,
nighttime incontinence means bed wetting and fever. To rule out any
possibility of the UTI, ultrasound of renal and bladder as well as VCUG
should be performed. Almost 30% to 40 % of the children who suffers from the
UTI along with fever have history of urological abnormality from birth.
Vesicoureteral reflux :
Vesicoureteral reflux is an abnormal
movement of urine from the bladder into the kidneys. It can be categorized
into 5 grades-1, the mildest and 5, the most severe. Most children suffers
from grade 1-2 reflux, in the majority of cases, it resolves itself with the
gradual passage of time. In half of the cases grade 3 reflux resolves
whereas grade 4 and 5 will resolve in a minority of cases. Surgery is
essential to correct reflux because surgery helps to lengthen the path of
the ureter as it travels into the bladder.
Prune Belley Syndrome :
It is an unique condition found specifically
in males who have a wrinkled abdominal wall. Generally this condition
prevails due to absence of abdominal musculature, bilaterally undescended
testes and other urinary tract abnormalities, including an extremely large
bladder and severe reflux with dilated ureters and varying degrees of
dysplasia of the kidneys. This syndrome can be diagnosed at the time of
It is a rare congenital bladder disorder. This disease
results when the tissue which makes up the abdominal wall is deficient. It
is also seen that such cases bladder is a flat sheet on the abdominal wall
instead of a sphere inside the pelvis. Urine leaks out of the abdominal wall
from the exposed urethral orifices. This is associated with pubic separation
and epispadias. It is a severe congenital curvature and foreshortening of
Neural Tube Defects :
Neural tube defects take place when the bones
of the spine does not form properly, leaving the spinal cord and its nerves
and coverings to project out through the skin (or lie just below it). Since
the bladder and the urinary sphincters function under neurological control
from the spinal cord, damage to the spinal cord can result in lower urinary
tract malfunction which, if not treated properly can lead to renal damage.
The most common symptoms of neural tube defects are frequent infections,
nighttime incontinence and urinary frequency.
Pediatric Genital Abnormalities :
It can be classified into various
types of abnormalities such as Hypospadias, Episadius, Chordee, Male/Female
Genitalia, Undescended testicles, Inginual hernia Hydrocele. Among them, the
most common one is hypospadias abnormality. In this condition the urethral
opening is not at the penis tip but further down on the ventral surface
(i.e., between the head of the penis and the scrotum). Surgery is require to
correct this abnormality because it may affect in future fertility, sexual
intercourse, cosmesis and the ability to void in the standing position.
Diagnostic Tests To Detect Pediatriac Urology
Pediatric Urology can be detected with the help of tests such as
- Blood test- the most primary test.
- Renal scan- this test is conducted to determine whether the kidney is
working properly , whether there is any obstruction in the kidneys, and
whether the blood pressure is caused due to the kidneys or not.
- Cystometrogram-it measures the bladder pressure at the various stages
of the filling.
- Cystoscopy-it is a test for the bladder and ureter.
- Intravenous pyelogram- this test contains series of x-rays of the
ureter and the renal pelvis conducted after injecting a contrast agent.
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan).
- Ultrasound- this test is done to detect blockage in the urinary
- Urinalysis and urine culture-to detect the problem of Urinary tract
- Urodynamic studies- this test measures the storage and rate of
movement of urine from the bladder.
- Uroflowmetry-it helps to measure the flow of urine.
- Voiding cystourethrogram(VCG)-this test is done to observe the
urinary tract before, during and after urination.
It is important to understand the embryology, anatomy and physiology to
detect and treat these congenital disorders.