Cost Difference :
|Much less as compared to the other European Countries
Endourology is branch of urological surgery that includes closed
techniques for visualizing or manipulating the urinary tract to determine
whether there is any obstruction or cancer in it or not. This technique is
also useful for the treatment, evaluation and prevention of kidney stones.
Endourology is mainly done with the help instruments. In order to perform
surgery to remove the stones from the kidney, thin and flexible instruments
such as lasers, graspers, miniature stone retrieval baskets, special
scalpels, and cautery, can be advanced through working channels in the
scopes without creating any incisions at all. In most of the endoscopic
procedures, patient can leave the hospital on the very same day.
Endourology includes Cystoscopy, Pelviscopy or celioscopy or laparoscopy,
Percutaneous or ureteroscopy, Uretheroscopy, Nephroscopy. These are all
genitourinary operative procedures (diagnostic and therapeutic).
Cystoscopy is a procedure used to look inside the
urinary bladder and the urethra. It is used to treat bladder stones and
tumors. Local anesthesia is generally used in case of diagnostic cystoscopy.
But in case of operative cystoscopy techinques, general anesthesia is used.
Cystoscopy is performed with an instrument known a cystoscope. It has lenses
like that of telescope or microscope which enables the doctor to see the
inner surface of the urinary tract. Some cystoscope also uses the optical
fibers. Cystoscopy can be divided into two types rigid and flexible
depending on the flexibility of the cystocopy. Both on the male and female,
flexible cystoscopy is carried out using local anaesthesia whereas in case
of rigid cystocopy general anesthesia is used on male to reduce the pain.
Pelviscopy is a surgical techniques used for diagnosis
and treatment of the pelvic organs with the help of laparoscope, an
instrument that looks like small telescope on a flexible tube. In this
procedure doctors inserted the laparoscope inside the abdomen at the navel.
This procedure is carried out to diagnose on the female patients having the
appendicitis or salpingitis. It is also used to evaluate infertility.
Pelviscopy is mainly used to treat Ectopic pregnancies, Ovarian cyst, Tumors
, Endometriosis and Pelvic adhesions.
Percutaneous or ureteroscopy :
This is a technique used to examine
the upper urinary tract, usually performed with a flexible or rigid fiber
optic device known as the Ureteroscope. This device looks like a long and
thin telescope. This procedure is used to treat the stones and the tumors of
the ureter. It is also useful in treating kidney stones. In this procedure,
at first patient receives general anesthesia. Than the ureteroscope is
passed through the urethra, bladder and than finally to the ureter to
visualize the tube.
A uretheroscopy is a diagnostic procedure that
investigates the urinary system with the help of a special telescope. It is
carried out to treat strictures or blockages of the urethra. In this
technique the patient receives local anesthesia in the form of anesthetic
jelly which is flushed down to the urethra. After than a narrow tube is
passed through the pennis or vagina and into the bladder. To examine the
bladder, biopsies and for the treatment, a telescope and various instruments
are pass down through this tube inside the body. After the uretheroscopy,
all the instruments and the telescopes are taken out and in place of them a
catheter is insert inside the bladder to help it drain. Catheter remains
there until the patient 's urine is clear.
This is a technique used to visualize the inside of
the kidney by means of nephroscope. This technique helps in the treatment of
stones and tumors of the kidney lining. Neproscope which is used in this
technique is made of a light source in a tube and have three channels for
telescopes, fibre optic light input and irrigation. In this procedure, at
first the instrument is inserted into the kidney to locate the stones
through an incision in the renal pelvis. After than the stones are broken up
with high frequency sound waves and removed by suction through the scope.